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|Title: ||Cadmium-Related Mortality and Long-Term Secular Trends in the Cadmium Body Burden of an Environmentally Exposed Population|
|Authors: ||Nawrot, Tim S.|
Van Hecke, Etienne
Roels, Harry A.
Staessen, Jan A.
|Issue Date: ||2008|
|Publisher: ||US DEPT HEALTH HUMAN SCIENCES PUBLIC HEALTH SCIENCE|
|Citation: ||ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PERSPECTIVES, 116(12). p. 1620-1628|
|Abstract: ||BACKGROUND: Few population studies have reported on the long-term changes in the internal cadmium dose and simultaneously occurring mortality. OBJECTIVE: We monitored blood cadmium (BCd), 24-hr urinary cadmium (UCd), and mortality in an environmentally exposed population. METHODS: Starting from 1985, we followed BCd (until 2003), UCd (until 1996), and mortality (until 2007) among 476 and 480 subjects, randomly recruited from low- exposure areas (LEA) and high-exposure areas (HEA). The last cadmium-producing plant in the HEA closed in 2002. RESULTS: From 1985-1989 to 1991-1996, BCd decreased by 40.3% and 18.9% in the LEA and HEA, respectively (p < 0.0001 for between-area difference). From 1991-1996 until 2001-2003, BCd remained unchanged in the HEA (+ 1.8%) and increased by 19.7% in the LEA (p < 0.0001). Over the entire follow-up period, the annual decrease in BCd averaged 2.7% in the LEA (n = 258) and 1.8% in the HEA (n = 203). From 1985-1989 to 1991-1996, UCd fell by 12.9% in the LEA and by 16.6% in the HEA (p = 0.22), with mean annual decreases of 2.7% (n = 366) and 3.4% (n = 364). Over 20.3 years (median), 206 deaths (21.5%) occurred. At baseline, BCd (14.6 vs. 10.2 nmol/L) and UCd (14.1 vs. 8.6 nmol/24-hr) were higher in deaths than in survivors. The risks (p <= 0.04) associated with a doubling of baseline UCd were 20% and 44% for total and noncardiovascular mortality, and 25% and 33% for a doubling of BCd. CONCLUSIONS: Even if zinc-cadmium smelters close, historical environmental contamination remains a persistent source of exposure. Environmental exposure to cadmium increases total and noncardiovascular mortality in a continuous fashion without threshold.|
|Notes: ||[Nawrot, Tim S.; Thijs, Lutgarde; Richart, Tom; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Jin, Yu; Staessen, Jan A.] Katholieke Univ Leuven, Studies Coordinating Ctr, Div Hypertens & Cardiovasc Rehabil, Lab Hypertens,Dept Cardiovasc Dis, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium. [Nawrot, Tim S.; Vangronsveld, Jaco] Univ Hasselt, Dept Environm Biol, Diepenbeek, Belgium. [Richart, Tom; Staessen, Jan A.] Maastricht Univ, Dept Epidemiol, Maastricht, Netherlands. [Roels, Harry A.] Univ Catholique Louvain, Ind Toxicol & Occupat Med Unit, B-1200 Brussels, Belgium. [Van Hecke, Etienne] Katholieke Univ Leuven, Dept Earth & Environm Sci, Social & Geog Sect, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium. [Nawrot, Tim S.] Katholieke Univ Leuven, Dept Occupat & Environm Med, Sch Publ Hlth, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium.|
|ISI #: ||000261290300022|
|Type: ||Journal Contribution|
|Validation: ||ecoom, 2009|
|Appears in Collections: ||Research publications|
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