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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1942/8327

Title: Bioenergy to save the world - Producing novel energy plants for growth on abandoned land
Authors: Schroder, Peter
Herzig, Rolf
Bojinov, Bojin
Ruttens, Ann
Nehnevajova, Erika
Stamatiadis, Stamatis
Memon, Abdul
Vassilev, Andon
Caviezel, Mario
Vangronsveld, Jaco
Issue Date: 2008
Abstract: Background and Aim. Following to the 2006 climate summit, the European Union formally set the goal of limiting global warming to 2 degrees Celsius. But even today, climate change is already affecting people and ecosystems. Examples are melting glaciers and polar ice, reports about thawing permafrost areas, dying coral reefs, rising sea levels, changing ecosystems and fatal heat periods. Within the last 150 years, CO2 levels rose from 280 ppm to currently over 400 ppm. If we continue on our present course, CO2 equivalent levels could approach 600 ppm by 2035. However, if CO2 levels are not stabilized at the 450-550 ppm level, the consequences could be quite severe. Hence, if we do not act now, the opportunity to stabilise at even 550 ppm is likely to slip away. Long-term stabilisation will require that CO2 emissions ultimately be reduced to more than 80% below current levels. This will require major changes in how we operate. Results. Reducing greenhouse gases from burning fossil fuels seems to be the most promising approach to counterbalance the dramatic climate changes we would face in the near future. It is clear since the Kyoto protocol that the availability of fossil carbon resources will not match our future requirements. Furthermore, the distribution of fossil carbon sources around the globe makes them an even less reliable source in the future. We propose to screen crop and non-crop species for high biomass production and good survival on marginal soils as well as to produce mutants from the same species by chemical mutagenesis or related methods. These plants, when grown in adequate crop rotation, will provide local farming communities with biomass for the fermentation in decentralized biogas reactors, and the resulting nitrogen rich manure can be distributed on the fields to improve the soil. Discussion. Such an approach will open new economic perspectives to small farmers, and provide a clever way to self sufficient and sustainable rural development. Together with the present economic reality, where energy and raw material prices have drastically increased over the last decade, they necessitate the development and the establishment of alternative concepts. Conclusions. Biotechnology is available to apply fast breeding to promising energy plant species. It is important that our valuable arable land is preserved for agriculture. The opportunity to switch from low-income agriculture to biogas production may convince small farmers to adhere to their business and by that preserve the identity of rural communities. Perspectives. Overall, biogas is a promising alternative for the future, because its resource base is widely available, and single farms or small local cooperatives might start biogas plant operation.
Notes: Phytotech Fdn, CH-3013 Bern, Switzerland. German Res Ctr Environm Hlth, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany. Agr Univ Plovdiv, Dept Plant Plant Genet, Plovdiv 4000, Bulgaria. Univ Hasselt, B-3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium. GAIA Environm Res & Educ Ctr, Soil Ecol & Biotechnol Lab, Kifisia, Greece. TUBITAK Res Inst Genet Engn & Biotechnol, Gebze, Turkey. Agr Univ Plovdiv, Dept Plant Physiol & Biochem, Plovdiv 4000, Bulgaria. CTU Konzepte Tech & Umwelt, CH-8400 Winterthur, Switzerland.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/1942/8327
DOI: 10.1065/espr2008.03.481
ISI #: 000256187500005
ISSN: 0944-1344
Category: A1
Type: Journal Contribution
Validation: ecoom, 2009
Appears in Collections: Research publications

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