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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1942/26379

Title: Three cycles of human biomonitoring in Flanders - Time trends observed in the Flemish Environment and Health Study
Authors: Schoeters, Greet
Govarts, Eva
Bruckers, Liesbeth
Den Hond, Elly
Nelen, Vera
De Henauw, Stefaan
Sioen, Isabelle
Nawrot, Tim S.
Plusquin, Michelle
Vriens, Annette
Covaci, Adrian
Loots, Ilse
Morrens, Bert
Coertjens, Dries
Van Larebeke, Nicolas
De Craemer, Sam
Croes, Kim
Lambrechts, Nathalie
Colles, Ann
Baeyens, Willy
Issue Date: 2017
Abstract: To follow time trends in exposure to environmental chemicals, three successive campaigns of the Flemish Environment and Health Study (FLEHS) have recruited and sampled in total 5825 participants between 2002 and 2014. Cord samples from newborns, urine and blood samples from 14 to 15 years old adolescents and from adults between 50 and 65 years old were analysed in geographical representative samples of the Flemish population. The data of the different campaigns were considered per age group and per biomarker after adjustment for predefined covariates to take into account differences in characteristics of the study populations over time. Geometric means were calculated. Multiple linear regression was used to evaluate time trends. The concentration of serum biomarkers for persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as marker polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), the major metabolite of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) expressed per g lipid, decreased significantly with time. The levels of DDE in all age groups and those of PCBs in cord and adolescent serum samples were almost halved in a time period of ten years. HCB levels were reduced by a factor of 4 in adolescents and in adults. Mean serum concentrations of the more recently regulated perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were significantly lower in cord samples of 2013 compared to samples of 2007. The decline was more pronounced for PFOS than for PFOA. In the same period, mean metabolite levels of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) decreased significantly in urine samples of adolescents with sharper declines for DEHP than for DBP. Cadmium and lead levels in cord and adolescent blood samples were significantly lower in the recent campaigns than 10 years before. Also the mean urinary cadmium level in adults was 35% lower compared to adult samples of 2002. Such favourable trends were not observed for arsenic and thallium measured in cord blood. Similar, the concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene, a marker for exposure to poly cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), was not lower in urine from adolescents sampled in 2013 compared to 2003. In contrast, concentrations of t,t'-muconic acid, a marker of benzene exposure, showed clearly reduced levels. The FLEHS program shows that concentrations of well-regulated chemicals especially traditional POPs and cadmium and lead are decreasing in the population of Flanders. Response to regulatory measures seems to happen rapid, since concentrations in humans of specific regulated perfluorinated compounds and phthalates were significantly reduced in five years time. Biomarker concentrations for arsenic, thallium, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons are not decreasing in this time span and further follow up is warranted. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier GmbH.
Notes: [Schoeters, Greet; Govarts, Eva; Den Hond, Elly; Lambrechts, Nathalie; Colles, Ann] Flemish Inst Technol Res VITO, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol, Belgium. [Schoeters, Greet] Univ Antwerp, Dept Biomed Sci, Antwerp, Belgium. [Schoeters, Greet] Univ Southern Denmark, Dept Environm Med, Odense, Denmark. [Bruckers, Liesbeth] Hasselt Univ, Interunivers Inst Biostat & Stat Bioinformat, Diepenbeek, Belgium. [Den Hond, Elly; Nelen, Vera] PIH, Antwerp, Belgium. [De Henauw, Stefaan; Sioen, Isabelle] Univ Ghent, Dept Publ Hlth, Ghent, Belgium. [Nawrot, Tim S.; Plusquin, Michelle; Vriens, Annette] Hasselt Univ, Ctr Environm Sci, Antwerp, Belgium. [Nawrot, Tim S.] KULeuven, Dept Publ Hlth & Primary Care, Leuven, Belgium. [Covaci, Adrian] Univ Antwerp, Toxicol Ctr, Univ Pl 1, B-2610 Antwerp, Belgium. [Loots, Ilse; Morrens, Bert; Coertjens, Dries] Univ Antwerp, Fac Social Sci, Antwerp, Belgium. [Van Larebeke, Nicolas; De Craemer, Sam; Croes, Kim; Baeyens, Willy] Vrije Univ Brussel VUB, Dept Analyt Environm & Geochem AMGC, Elsene, Belgium.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/1942/26379
DOI: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2016.11.006
ISI #: 000401215200006
ISSN: 1438-4639
Category: A1
Type: Journal Contribution
Appears in Collections: Research publications

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