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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1942/23789

Title: Microbial Performance of Food Safety Control and Assurance Activities in a Fresh Produce Processing Sector Measured Using a Microbial Assessment Scheme and Statistical Modeling
Authors: Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau
Sawe, Chemutai Tonui
Onyango, Cecilia Moraa
Habib, Ihab
Njagi, Edmund Njeru
Aerts, Marc
Molenberghs, Geert
Issue Date: 2017
Citation: JOURNAL OF FOOD PROTECTION, 80(1), p. 177-188
Abstract: Current approaches such as inspections, audits, and end product testing cannot detect the distribution and dynamics of microbial contamination. Despite the implementation of current food safety management systems, foodborne outbreaks linked to fresh produce continue to be reported. A microbial assessment scheme and statistical modeling were used to systematically assess the microbial performance of core control and assurance activities in five Kenyan fresh produce processing and export companies. Generalized linear mixed models and correlated random-effects joint models for multivariate clustered data followed by empirical Bayes estimates enabled the analysis of the probability of contamination across critical sampling locations (CSLs) and factories as a random effect. Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes were not detected in the final products. However, none of the processors attained the maximum safety level for environmental samples. Escherichia coli was detected in five of the six CSLs, including the final product. Among the processing-environment samples, the hand or glove swabs of personnel revealed a higher level of predicted contamination with E. coli, and 80% of the factories were E. coli positive at this CSL. End products showed higher predicted probabilities of having the lowest level of food safety compared with raw materials. The final products were E. coli positive despite the raw materials being E. coli negative for 60% of the processors. There was a higher probability of contamination with coliforms in water at the inlet than in the final rinse water. Four (80%) of the five assessed processors had poor to unacceptable counts of Enterobacteriaceae on processing surfaces. Personnel-, equipment-, and product-related hygiene measures to improve the performance of preventive and intervention measures are recommended.
Notes: [Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau; Sawe, Chemutai Tonui] Univ Nairobi, Dept Food Sci Nutr & Technol, Nairobi, Kenya. [Onyango, Cecilia Moraa] Univ Nairobi, Dept Plant Sci & Crop Protect, Nairobi, Kenya. [Habib, I] Murdoch Univ, Coll Vet Med, Murdoch, WA 6150, Australia. [Njagi, Edmund Njeru] London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Canc Res UK Canc Survival Grp, Keppel St, London WC1E 7HT, England. [Njagi, Edmund Njeru; Aerts, Marc; Molenberghs, Geert] Univ Hasselt, Interuniv Inst Biostat & Stat Bioinformat, B-3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium. [Molenberghs, Geert] Katholieke Univ Leuven, Interuniv Inst Biostat & Stat Bioinformat, B-3000 Louvain, Belgium. [Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau] Tech Univ Denmark, Natl Food Inst, Div Epidemiol & Microbial Genom, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/1942/23789
DOI: 10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-16-233
ISI #: 000392483900024
ISSN: 0362-028X
Category: A1
Type: Journal Contribution
Appears in Collections: Research publications

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