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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1942/22729

Title: Nicotine Dependence and Urinary Nicotine, Cotinine and Hydroxycotinine Levels in Daily Smokers
Authors: Van Overmeire, Ilse P. I.
De Smedt, Tom
Dendale, Paul
Nackaerts, Kristiaan
Vanacker, Hilde
Vanoeteren, Jan F. A.
Van Laethem, Danny M. G.
Van Loco, Joris
De Cremer, Koen A. J.
Issue Date: 2016
Citation: NICOTINE & TOBACCO RESEARCH, 18(9), p. 1813-1819
Abstract: Nicotine dependence and smoking frequency are critical factors for smoking cessation. The aims of this study are (1) to determine if nicotine dependence Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) scores are associated with urinary levels of nicotine metabolites, (2) to assess the relationship of hydroxycotinine/cotinine ratio with FTND score and cigarettes smoked per day (CPD), and (3) to identify significant predictors of cigarettes per day among biomarker concentrations and individual FTND items. Urine samples and questionnaire data of 239 daily smokers were obtained. Nicotine, cotinine and hydroxycotinine urinary levels were determined by UPLC MS/MS. Multiple linear regression models were developed to explore the relationship between nicotine, cotinine, hydroxycotinine levels and separate FTND scores (for all six items). We found significant correlations between the different urinary biomarker concentrations, and the FTND score. The time before the first cigarette after waking (TTFC) was significantly associated with the nicotine, cotinine and hydroxycotinine concentrations. No association was found between the ratio of hydroxycotinine to cotinine and either the FTND or the CPD. A model including four FTND questions, sex, age, and the cotinine concentration, accounted for 45% of the variance of CPD. There are significant relationships between urinary levels of nicotine, cotinine, and hydroxycotinine and the FTND score. Especially the FTND question about TTFC is relevant for explaining the biomarker concentrations. CPD (below 15) was significantly explained by four FTND dependence items and urinary cotinine levels in a regression model. We investigated associations between urinary levels of nicotine, cotinine, and hydroxycotinine in daily smokers and the FTND scores for nicotine dependence. We did not find association between the hydroxycotinine/cotinine ratio and CPD. We developed a model that explains the cigarettes smoked daily (CPD) in a group of light smokers by combining FTND items, urinary cotinine levels, sex, and age. Our results might be of importance for clinical use or future studies on larger smoking populations.
Notes: [Van Overmeire, Ilse P. I.; De Smedt, Tom; Van Loco, Joris; De Cremer, Koen A. J.] Sci Inst Publ Hlth, Dept Food Med & Consumer Protect, Brussels, Belgium. [Dendale, Paul] Univ Hasselt, Dept Cardiol, Hasselt, Belgium. [Dendale, Paul] Jessa Hosp, Hasselt, Belgium. [Nackaerts, Kristiaan] Univ Leuven, KU Leuven, Dept Resp Dis, Univ Hosp, Leuven, Belgium. [Vanacker, Hilde] External Serv Prevent & Protect Work, IDEWE, Heverlee, Belgium. [Vanoeteren, Jan F. A.] Mensura Occupat Hlth Serv Brussels, Brussels, Belgium. [Van Laethem, Danny M. G.] Gen Hosp Oudenaarde, Oudenaarde, Belgium.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/1942/22729
DOI: 10.1093/ntr/ntw099
ISI #: 000385631500003
ISSN: 1462-2203
Category: A1
Type: Journal Contribution
Validation: ecoom, 2017
Appears in Collections: Research publications

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