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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1942/21617

Title: Ectomycorrhizal fungi decompose soil organic matter using oxidative mechanisms adapted from saprotrophic ancestors
Authors: Shah, Firoz
Nicolas, Cesar
Bentzer, Johan
Ellstrom, Magnus
Smits, Mark
Rineau, Francois
Canback, Bjorn
Floudas, Dimitrios
Carleer, Robert
Lackner, Gerald
Braesel, Jana
Hoffmeister, Dirk
Henrissat, Bernard
Ahren, Dag
Johansson, Tomas
Hibbett, David S.
Martin, Francis
Persson, Per
Tunlid, Anders
Issue Date: 2016
Citation: NEW PHYTOLOGIST, 209 (4), p. 1705-1719
Abstract: Ectomycorrhizal fungi are thought to have a key role in mobilizing organic nitrogen that is trapped in soil organic matter (SOM). However, the extent to which ectomycorrhizal fungi decompose SOM and the mechanism by which they do so remain unclear, considering that they have lost many genes encoding lignocellulose-degrading enzymes that are present in their saprotrophic ancestors. Spectroscopic analyses and transcriptome profiling were used to examine the mechanisms by which five species of ectomycorrhizal fungi, representing at least four origins of symbiosis, decompose SOM extracted from forest soils. In the presence of glucose and when acquiring nitrogen, all species converted the organic matter in the SOM extract using oxidative mechanisms. The transcriptome expressed during oxidative decomposition has diverged over evolutionary time. Each species expressed a different set of transcripts encoding proteins associated with oxidation of lignocellulose by saprotrophic fungi. The decomposition 'toolbox' has diverged through differences in the regulation of orthologous genes, the formation of new genes by gene duplications, and the recruitment of genes from diverse but functionally similar enzyme families. The capacity to oxidize SOM appears to be common among ectomycorrhizal fungi. We propose that the ancestral decay mechanisms used primarily to obtain carbon have been adapted in symbiosis to scavenge nutrients instead.
Notes: [Shah, Firoz; Nicolas, Cesar; Bentzer, Johan; Ellstrom, Magnus; Canback, Bjorn; Floudas, Dimitrios; Ahren, Dag; Johansson, Tomas; Persson, Per; Tunlid, Anders] Lund Univ, Microbial Ecol Grp, Dept Biol, Ecol Bldg, SE-22362 Lund, Sweden. [Smits, Mark; Rineau, Francois; Carleer, Robert] Hasselt Univ, Ctr Environm Sci, Bldg D,Agoralaan, B-3590 Diepenbeek, Limburg, Belgium. [Floudas, Dimitrios; Hibbett, David S.] Clark Univ, Lasry Ctr Biosci, Dept Biol, 950 Main St, Worcester, MA 01610 USA. [Lackner, Gerald; Braesel, Jana; Hoffmeister, Dirk] Univ Jena, Hans Knoll Inst, Dept Pharmaceut Microbiol, Beutenbergstr 11a, D-07745 Jena, Germany. [Henrissat, Bernard] Univ Aix Marseille, UMR7257, CNRS, F-13288 Marseille, France. [Henrissat, Bernard] King Abdulaziz Univ, Dept Biol Sci, Jeddah 21413, Saudi Arabia. [Ahren, Dag] Lund Univ, Dept Biol, Bioinformat Infrastruct Life Sci, Ecol Bldg, SE-22362 Lund, Sweden. [Martin, Francis] Univ Lorraine Interact Arbres Microorganismes, INRA Nancy, UMR INRA, Lab Excellence ARBRE,Inst Rech Agron INRA, F-54280 Champenoux, France. [Persson, Per] Lund Univ, Ctr Environm & Climate Res CEC, Ecol Bldg, SE-22362 Lund, Sweden.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/1942/21617
DOI: 10.1111/nph.13722
ISI #: 000373379800036
ISSN: 0028-646X
Category: A1
Type: Journal Contribution
Validation: ecoom, 2017
Appears in Collections: Research publications

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