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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1942/21564

Title: Incidence of nephrolithiasis in relation to environmental exposure to lead and cadmium in a population study
Authors: Hara, Azusa
Yang, Wen-Yi
Petit, Thibault
Zhang, Zhen-Yu
Gu, Yu-Mei
Wei, Fang-Fei
Jacobs, Lotte
Odili, Augustine N.
Thijs, Lutgarde
Nawrot, Tim S.
Staessen, Jan A.
Issue Date: 2016
Publisher: ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE
Citation: ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH, 145, p. 1-8
Abstract: Whether environmental exposure to nephrotoxic agents that potentially interfere with calcium homeostasis, such as lead and cadmium, contribute to the incidence of nephrolithiasis needs further clarification. We investigated the relation between nephrolithiasis incidence and environmental lead and cadmium exposure in a general population. In 1302 participants randomly recruited from a Flemish population (50.9% women; mean age, 47.9 years), we obtained baseline measurements (1985-2005) of blood lead (BPb), blood cadmium (BCd), 24-h urinary cadmium (UCd) and covariables. We monitored the incidence of kidney stones until October 6, 2014. We used Cox regression to calculate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for nephrolithiasis. At baseline, geometric mean BPb, BCd and UCd was 0.29 mu mol/L, 9.0 nmol/L, and 8.5 nmol per 24 h, respectively. Over 11.5 years (median), nephrolithiasis occurred in 40 people. Contrasting the low and top tertiles of the distributions, the sex- and age-standardized rates of nephrolithiasis expressed as events per 1000 person-years were 0.68 vs. 3.36 (p = 0.0016) for BPb, 1.80 vs. 3.28 (p=0.11) for BCd, and 1.65 vs. 2.95 (p=0.28) for UCd. In continuous analysis, with adjustments applied for sex, age, serum magnesium, and 24-h urinary volume and calcium, the hazard ratios expressing the risk associated with a doubling of the exposure biomarkers were 1.35 (p = 0.015) for BPb, 1.13 (p = 0.22) for BCd, and 1.23 (p = 0.070) for UCd. In conclusion, our results suggest that environmental lead exposure is a risk factor for nephrolithiasis in the general population. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Notes: [Hara, Azusa; Yang, Wen-Yi; Petit, Thibault; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Gu, Yu-Mei; Wei, Fang-Fei; Jacobs, Lotte; Odili, Augustine N.; Thijs, Lutgarde; Staessen, Jan A.] Univ Leuven, KU Leuven Dept Cardiovasc Sci, Res Unit Hypertens & Cardiovasc Epidemiol, Studies Coordinating Ctr, BE-3000 Leuven, Belgium. [Odili, Augustine N.] Univ Abuja, Coll Hlth Sci, Fac Clin Sci, Dept Internal Med, Abuja, Nigeria. [Nawrot, Tim S.] Univ Hasselt, Ctr Environm Sci, Hasselt, Belgium. [Staessen, Jan A.] Maastricht Univ, R&D Grp VitaK, NL-6200 MD Maastricht, Netherlands.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/1942/21564
DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2015.11.013
ISI #: 000368218700001
ISSN: 0013-9351
Category: A1
Type: Journal Contribution
Validation: ecoom, 2017
Appears in Collections: Research publications

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