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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1942/19139

Title: Exploring appropriate livelihood alternatives for sustainable rangeland management
Authors: Gharibvand, Hojatollah Khedri
Azadi, Hossein
Witlox, Frank
Issue Date: 2015
Citation: RANGELAND JOURNAL, 37 (4), p. 345-356
Abstract: Rangeland degradation and vulnerability of livelihoods are two major challenges facing pastoralists, rangeland managers and policy-makers in arid and semi-arid areas. There is a need to make holistic informed decisions in order to protect rangelands and sustain livelihoods. Through a comprehensive literature review on rangeland management policies and livelihood strategies of 'rangeland users', it is shown how such policies have affected sustainable rangeland management, how strategies to sustain livelihoods have been incomplete and how there has been a lack of a multi-disciplinary approach in acknowledging them. Accordingly, a set of appropriate livelihood alternatives is introduced and, thenceforth, a framework for their evaluation is developed. Supportive strategies for enhancing resilience are discussed as a research and policy-making gap. In this study, the keys to achieve sustainable livelihoods are acknowledged as 'livelihoods' resilience', where livelihoods need to be supported by access to capital, means of coping with the contexts of vulnerability as well as by enhancing policies, institutions and processes. The paper proposes a set of 'livestock-based livelihoods' regarding 'traditional pastoralism' as well as 'their mitigation and adaptation'. Moreover, their transformation to 'commercial pastoralism', 'resource-based livelihoods', 'alternative livelihoods' and 'migration' strategies is recognised to be employed by rangeland users as useful alternatives in different regions and under future changing conditions including climate change. These strategies embrace thinking on resilience and are supported by strategies that address social and ecological consequences of climate change consisting of mitigation, adaptation and transformation. It is argued that sustainable livelihoods and sustainable rangeland management will be achieved if they are supported by policies that build and facilitate a set of appropriate livelihood alternatives and keep them in a sustainable state rather than being limited to supporting 'vulnerable livelihoods'. Finally, future directions for analysing and policy-making in selecting the best alternative to achieve sustainable livelihoods are indicated.
Notes: [Gharibvand, Hojatollah Khedri; Azadi, Hossein; Witlox, Frank] Univ Ghent, Dept Geog, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium. [Azadi, Hossein] Hasselt Univ, Ctr Environm Sci, Hasselt, Belgium. [Azadi, Hossein] Univ Liege, Gembloux Agrobio Tech, Econ Rural Dev, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/1942/19139
DOI: 10.1071/RJ15027
ISI #: 000358664300002
ISSN: 1036-9872
Category: A1
Type: Journal Contribution
Validation: ecoom, 2016
Appears in Collections: Research publications

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