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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1942/17140

Title: Metal exposure in schoolchildren and working children. A urinary biomonitoring study from Lahore, Pakistan
Authors: Sughis, Muhammad
Riaz, Amir
Ikram-Dar, Umair
Mahmood, Arshad
Haufroid, Vincent
Nemery, Benoit
Issue Date: 2014
Abstract: In order to document the exposure to trace metals among urban schoolchildren and rural working children, we measured the urinary concentrations of metals in schoolchildren from two areas of differing traffic intensity in Lahore, and in children working in carpet weaving or the brick industry outside Lahore. In a cross-sectional design, we recruited a convenience sample of 339 children aged 8-12 years (mean age 9.9 y, SD 1.4; 47% girls) from two elementary schools in Lahore - one situated in a high air pollution area (n = 100) and one situated in an area with lower air pollution (n = 79) - and from the carpet weaving industry (n = 80) and brick industry (n = 80). A spot urine sample was collected and concentrations of 20 metals and metalloids were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Samples of drinking water were similarly analyzed. In general, the urinary concentrations of several toxic metals (including Cr, Mn, As, Mo, Cd, Pb, U) were higher than international reference values. Concentrations of As were especially elevated in children working in the brick making industry [geometric mean (GM) 118 mu g/L], but they were also high among urban schoolchildren (GM 68 mu g/L and 56 mu g/L). Lead (Pb) was higher in urine from schoolchildren in the high air pollution area (GM 11 mu g/L) than in those from the lower pollution area (GM 5.3 mu g/L). Uranium (U) was high in both carpet weavers (GM 0.28 mu g/L) and brick kiln workers (GM 0.45 mu g/L). Concentrations of As, Pb, and U in drinking water corresponded well with urinary concentrations of metals.. This descriptive study provides evidence for a high exposure to several toxic metals in this area of Pakistan. The concentrations of urinary As are in the order of those found in other regions of the world with high environmental exposure to As. The sources and pathways of exposure and the health significance of these findings need to be further investigated. (C) 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Notes: [Sughis, Muhammad; Nawrot, Tim S.; Nemery, Benoit] Katholieke Univ Leuven, Dept Publ Hlth & Primary Care, Ctr Environm & Hlth, Louvain, Belgium. [Sughis, Muhammad; Riaz, Amir; Ikram-Dar, Umair] Ctr Res Publ Hlth, Lahore, Pakistan. [Sughis, Muhammad] Lahore Coll Pharmaceut Sci, Lahore, Pakistan. [Nawrot, Tim S.] Hasselt Univ, Ctr Environm Sci, Diepenbeek, Belgium. [Mahmood, Arshad] Ctr Improvement Working Condit & Environm, Lahore, Pakistan. [Haufroid, Vincent] Catholic Univ Louvain, Louvain Ctr Toxicol & Appl Pharmacol, Louvain, Belgium. ben.nemery@med.kuleuven.be
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/1942/17140
DOI: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2014.02.002
ISI #: 000339694800007
ISSN: 1438-4639
Category: A1
Type: Journal Contribution
Validation: ecoom, 2015
Appears in Collections: Research publications

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