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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1942/14524

Title: The Magnitude of Global Marine Species Diversity
Authors: Appeltans, Ward
Ahyong, Shane T.
Anderson, Gary
Angel, Martin V.
ARTOIS, Tom
Bailly, Nicolas
Bamber, Roger
Barber, Anthony
Bartsch, Ilse
Berta, Annalisa
Blazewicz-Paszkowycz, Magdalena
Bock, Phil
Boxshall, Geoff
Boyko, Christopher B.
Brandao, Simone Nunes
Bray, Rod A.
Bruce, Niel L.
Cairns, Stephen D.
Chan, Tin-Yam
Cheng, Lanna
Collins, Allen G.
Cribb, Thomas
Curini-Galletti, Marco
Dandouh-Guebas, Farid
Davie, Peter J. F.
Dawson, Michael N.
De Clerck, Olivier
Decock, Wim
De Grave, Sammy
de Voogd, Nicole J.
Domning, Daryl P.
Emig, Christian C.
Erseus, Christer
Eschmeyer, William
Fauchald, Kristian
Fautin, Daphne G.
Feist, Stephen W.
Fransen, Charles H. J. M.
Furuya, Hidetaka
Garcia-Alvarez, Oscar
Gerken, Sarah
Gibson, David
Gittenberger, Arjan
Gofas, Serge
Gomez-Daglio, Liza
Gordon, Dennis P.
Guiry, Michael D.
Hernandez, Francisco
Hoeksema, Bert W.
Hopcroft, Russell R.
Jaume, Damia
Kirk, Paul
Koedam, Nico
Koenemann, Stefan
Kolb, Juergen B.
Kristensen, Reinhardt M.
Kroh, Andreas
Lambert, Gretchen
Lazarus, David B.
Lemaitre, Rafael
Longshaw, Matt
Lowry, Jim
Macpherson, Enrique
Madin, Laurence P.
Mah, Christopher
Mapstone, Gill
McLaughlin, Patsy A.
Mees, Jan
Meland, Kenneth
Messing, Charles G.
Mills, Claudia E.
Molodtsova, Tina N.
Mooi, Rich
Neuhaus, Birger
Ng, Peter K. L.
Nielsen, Claus
Norenburg, Jon
Opresko, Dennis M.
Osawa, Masayuki
Paulay, Gustav
Perrin, William
Pilger, John F.
Poore, Gary C. B.
Pugh, Phil
Read, Geoffrey B.
Reimer, James D.
Rius, Marc
Rocha, Rosana M.
Saiz-Salinas, Jose I.
Scarabino, Victor
Schierwater, Bernd
Schmidt-Rhaesa, Andreas
Schnabel, Kareen E.
Schotte, Marilyn
Schuchert, Peter
Schwabe, Enrico
Segers, Hendrik
Self-Sullivan, Caryn
Shenkar, Noa
Siegel, Volker
Sterrer, Wolfgang
Stohr, Sabine
Swalla, Billie
Tasker, Mark L.
Thuesen, Erik V.
Timm, Tarmo
Todaro, M. Antonio
Turon, Xavier
Tyler, Seth
Uetz, Peter
van der Land, Jacob
Vanhoorne, Bart
van Ofwegen, Leen P.
van Soest, Rob W. M.
Vanaverbeke, Jan
Walker-Smith, Genefor
Walter, T. Chad
Warren, Alan
Williams, Gary C.
Wilson, Simon P.
Costello, Mark J.
Issue Date: 2012
Publisher: CELL PRESS
Citation: CURRENT BIOLOGY, 22 (23), p. 2189-2202
Abstract: Background: The question of how many marine species exist is important because it provides a metric for how much we do and do not know about life in the oceans. We have compiled the first register of the marine species of the world and used this baseline to estimate how many more species, partitioned among all major eukaryotic groups, may be discovered. Results: There are similar to 226,000 eukaryotic marine species described. More species were described in the past decade (similar to 20,000) than in any previous one. The number of authors describing new species has been increasing at a faster rate than the number of new species described in the past six decades. We report that there are similar to 170,000 synonyms, that 58,000-72,000 species are collected but not yet described, and that 482,000-741,000 more species have yet to be sampled. Molecular methods may add tens of thousands of cryptic species. Thus, there may be 0.7-1.0 million marine species. Past rates of description of new species indicate there may be 0.5 +/- 0.2 million marine species. On average 37% (median 31%) of species in over 100 recent field studies around the world might be new to science. Conclusions: Currently, between one-third and two-thirds of marine species may be undescribed, and previous estimates of there being well over one million marine species appear highly unlikely. More species than ever before are being described annually by an increasing number of authors. If the current trend continues, most species will be discovered this century.
Notes: [Appeltans, Ward; Decock, Wim; Hernandez, Francisco; Vanhoorne, Bart] Flanders Marine Inst, Flemish Marine Data & Informat Ctr, B-8400 Oostende, Belgium. [Appeltans, Ward] Intergovt Oceanog Commiss UNESCO, IOC Project Off IODE, B-8400 Oostende, Belgium. [Ahyong, Shane T.; Lowry, Jim] Australian Museum, Sydney, NSW 2010, Australia. [Ahyong, Shane T.] Univ New S Wales, Sch Biol Earth & Environm Sci, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia. [Anderson, Gary] Univ So Mississippi, Dept Biol Sci, Hattiesburg, MS 39406 USA. [Angel, Martin V.; Pugh, Phil] Natl Oceanog Ctr, Southampton SO14 3ZH, Hants, England. [Artois, Tom] Hasselt Univ, Ctr Environm Sci, B-3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium. [Bailly, Nicolas] WorldFish Ctr, Los Banos 4031, Laguna, Philippines. [Bamber, Roger] ARTOO Marine Biol Consultants, Southampton SO14 5QY, Hants, England. [Barber, Anthony] British Myriapod & Isopod Grp, Ivybridge PL21 0BD, Devon, England. [Bartsch, Ilse] Res Inst & Nat Hist Museum, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany. [Berta, Annalisa] San Diego State Univ, Dept Biol, San Diego, CA 92182 USA. [Blazewicz-Paszkowycz, Magdalena] Univ Lodz, Lab Polar Biol & Oceanobiol, PL-90237 Lodz, Poland. [Bock, Phil; Poore, Gary C. B.; Walker-Smith, Genefor] Museum Victoria, Melbourne, Vic 3000, Australia. [Boxshall, Geoff; Bray, Rod A.; Gibson, David; Mapstone, Gill; Warren, Alan] Nat Hist Museum, Dept Life Sci, London SW7 5BD, England. [Boyko, Christopher B.] Dowling Coll, Dept Biol, Oakdale, NY 11769 USA. [Brandao, Simone Nunes] Senckenberg Res Inst, German Ctr Marine Biodivers Res DZMB, D-26382 Wilhelmshaven, Germany. [Brandao, Simone Nunes] Max Planck Inst Meteorol, Zool Museum Hamburg, D-20146 Hamburg, Germany. [Brandao, Simone Nunes] Zool Inst & Zool Museum, D-20146 Hamburg, Germany. [Bruce, Niel L.] Univ Johannesburg, Dept Zool, ZA-2006 Auckland Pk, South Africa. [Bruce, Niel L.] Queensland Museum, Museum Trop Queensland, Townsville, Qld 4810, Australia. [Bruce, Niel L.] James Cook Univ, Sch Marine & Trop Biol, Townsville, Qld 4810, Australia. [Cairns, Stephen D.; Fauchald, Kristian; Lemaitre, Rafael; Mah, Christopher; Norenburg, Jon; Opresko, Dennis M.; Schotte, Marilyn; Walter, T. Chad] Smithsonian Inst, Natl Museum Nat Hist, Washington, DC 20013 USA. [Chan, Tin-Yam] Natl Taiwan Ocean Univ, Inst Marine Biol, Chilung 20224, Taiwan. [Cheng, Lanna] Univ Calif San Diego, Scripps Inst Oceanog, Div Marine Biol Res, La Jolla, CA 92093 USA. [Collins, Allen G.] NOAA, Natl Marine Fisheries Serv, Natl Systemat Lab, Washington, DC 20560 USA. [Cribb, Thomas] Univ Queensland, Sch Biol Sci, Brisbane, Qld 4072, Australia. [Curini-Galletti, Marco] Univ Sassari, Dipartimento Sci Nat & Terr, I-07100 Sassari, Italy. [Dandouh-Guebas, Farid] Univ Libre Brussels, Lab Syst Ecol & Resource Management, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium. [Dandouh-Guebas, Farid; Koedam, Nico] Vrije Univ Brussel, Plant Biol & Nat Management Res Grp, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium. [Davie, Peter J. F.] Queensland Museum, Ctr Biodivers, Brisbane, Qld 4101, Australia. [Dawson, Michael N.; Gomez-Daglio, Liza] Univ Calif Merced, Sch Nat Sci, Merced, CA 95343 USA. [De Clerck, Olivier] Univ Ghent, Phycol Res Grp, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium. [De Grave, Sammy] Univ Oxford, Museum Nat Hist, Oxford OX1 3PW, England. [de Voogd, Nicole J.; Fransen, Charles H. J. M.; Gittenberger, Arjan; Hoeksema, Bert W.; van der Land, Jacob; van Ofwegen, Leen P.; van Soest, Rob W. M.] Nat Biodivers Ctr, Dept Marine Zool, NL-2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands. [Domning, Daryl P.] Howard Univ, Dept Anat, Washington, DC 20059 USA. [Emig, Christian C.] BrachNet, F-13007 Marseille, France. [Erseus, Christer] Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden. [Eschmeyer, William; Paulay, Gustav] Univ Florida, Florida Museum Nat Hist, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA. [Eschmeyer, William] Calif Acad Sci, Dept Ichthyol, San Francisco, CA 94118 USA. [Fautin, Daphne G.] Univ Kansas, Museum Nat Hist, Lawrence, KS 66045 USA. [Feist, Stephen W.; Longshaw, Matt] Ctr Environm Fisheries & Aquaculture Sci, Weymouth Lab, Weymouth DT4 8UB, Dorset, England. [Furuya, Hidetaka] Osaka Univ, Grad Sch Sci, Dept Biol, Osaka 5600043, Japan. [Furuya, Hidetaka] Osaka Univ, Sch Sci, Osaka 5600043, Japan. [Garcia-Alvarez, Oscar] Univ Santiago de Compostela, Dept Zool, Santiago De Compostela 15782, Spain. [Gerken, Sarah] Univ Alaska Anchorage, Dept Biol Sci, Anchorage, AK 99508 USA. [Gofas, Serge] Univ Malaga, Dept Biol Anim, E-29071 Malaga, Spain. [Gordon, Dennis P.; Read, Geoffrey B.; Schnabel, Kareen E.] Natl Inst Water & Atmospher Res, Wellington 6021, New Zealand. [Guiry, Michael D.] Natl Univ Ireland, Ryan Inst, Galway, Ireland. [Hopcroft, Russell R.] Univ Alaska, Sch Fisheries & Ocean Sci, Fairbanks, AK 99775 USA. [Jaume, Damia] Univ Illes Balears, CSIC, Inst Mediterraneo Estudios Avanzados, Esporles 7190, Spain. [Kirk, Paul] CABI Bioserv, Egham TW20 9TY, Surrey, England. [Koenemann, Stefan] Univ Siegen, Dept Biol & Didact, D-57068 Siegen, Germany. [Kolb, Juergen B.] Massey Univ, Inst Nat Sci, Auckland 0745, New Zealand. [Kristensen, Reinhardt M.] Univ Copenhagen, Zool Museum, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. [Kroh, Andreas] Nat Hist Museum Vienna, Dept Geol & Paleontol, A-1010 Vienna, Austria. [Lambert, Gretchen] Univ Washington, Friday Harbor Labs, Friday Harbor, WA 98250 USA. [Lazarus, David B.; Neuhaus, Birger] Museum Naturkunde, D-10115 Berlin, Germany. [Macpherson, Enrique; Turon, Xavier] Consejo Super Invest Cient CEAB CSIC, Ctr Estudios Avanzados Blanes, Blanes 17300, Spain. [Madin, Laurence P.] Woods Hole Oceanog Inst, Woods Hole, MA 02543 USA. [McLaughlin, Patsy A.] Western Washington Univ, Shannon Point Marine Ctr, Anacortes, WA 98221 USA. [Mees, Jan; Vanaverbeke, Jan] Univ Ghent, Marine Biol Res Grp, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium. [Meland, Kenneth] Univ Bergen, Dept Biol, N-5020 Bergen, Norway. [Messing, Charles G.; Self-Sullivan, Caryn] Nova SE Univ, Oceanog Ctr, Dania, FL 33004 USA. [Mills, Claudia E.; Swalla, Billie] Univ Washington, Friday Harbor Labs, Seattle, WA 98195 USA. [Mills, Claudia E.; Swalla, Billie] Univ Washington, Dept Biol, Seattle, WA 98195 USA. [Molodtsova, Tina N.] Russian Acad Sci, PP Shirshov Oceanol Inst, Moscow 117218, Russia. [Mooi, Rich; Williams, Gary C.] Calif Acad Sci, Dept Invertebrate Zool & Geol, San Francisco, CA 94118 USA. [Ng, Peter K. L.] Natl Univ Singapore, Fac Sci, Raffles Museum Biodivers Res, Singapore 119260, Singapore. [Nielsen, Claus] Univ Copenhagen, Nat Hist Museum Denmark, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. [Osawa, Masayuki] Shimane Univ, Res Ctr Coastal Lagoon Environm, Matsue, Shimane 6908504, Japan. [Perrin, William] NOAA, Natl Marine Fisheries Serv, SW Fisheries Sci Ctr, La Jolla, CA 92037 USA. [Pilger, John F.] Agnes Scott Coll, Dept Biol, Decatur, GA 30030 USA. [Reimer, James D.] Univ Ryukyus, Transdisciplinary Res Org Subtrop Isl Studies, Rising Star Program, Nishihara, Okinawa 9030213, Japan. [Rius, Marc] Univ Calif Davis, Dept Ecol & Evolut, Davis, CA 95616 USA. [Rocha, Rosana M.] Univ Fed Parana, Dept Zool, BR-81531980 Curitiba, Parana, Brazil. [Saiz-Salinas, Jose I.] Univ Basque Country, Dept Zool & Anim Cell Biol, Bilbao 48080, Spain. [Scarabino, Victor] Museo Nacl Hist Nat, Montevideo 11100, Uruguay. [Schierwater, Bernd] Tierarztlichen Hsch Hannover, ITZ, D-30559 Hannover, Germany. [Schmidt-Rhaesa, Andreas] Univ Hamburg, Biozentrum Grindel & Zool Museum, D-20146 Hamburg, Germany. [Schuchert, Peter] Museum Hist Nat, CH-1208 Geneva, Switzerland. [Schwabe, Enrico] Bavarian State Collect Zool, D-81247 Munich, Germany. [Segers, Hendrik] Royal Belgian Inst Nat Sci, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium. [Self-Sullivan, Caryn] Sirenian Int, Fredericksburg, VA 22401 USA. [Shenkar, Noa] Tel Aviv Univ, Dept Zool, IL-69978 Tel Aviv, Israel. [Siegel, Volker] Fed Res Ctr Fisheries, Inst Sea Fisheries, D-22767 Hamburg, Germany. [Sterrer, Wolfgang] Bermuda Nat Hist Museum, Flatts, Bermuda. [Stohr, Sabine] Swedish Museum Nat Hist, Dept Invertebrate Zool, S-10405 Stockholm, Sweden. [Tasker, Mark L.] Joint Nat Conservat Comm, Peterborough PE1 1JY, Cambs, England. [Thuesen, Erik V.] Evergreen State Coll, Lab 1, Olympia, WA 98505 USA. [Timm, Tarmo] Estonian Univ Life Sci, Ctr Limnol, EE-61117 Rannu, Estonia. [Todaro, M. Antonio] Univ Modena & Reggio Emilia, Dept Life Sci, I-41125 Modena, Italy. [Tyler, Seth] Univ Maine, Sch Biol & Ecol, Orono, ME 04469 USA. [Uetz, Peter] Virginia Commonwealth Univ, Ctr Study Biol Complex, Richmond, VA 23284 USA. [Wilson, Simon P.] Trin Coll Dublin, Sch Comp Sci & Stat, Dublin 2, Ireland. [Costello, Mark J.] Univ Auckland, Leigh Marine Lab, Auckland 1142, New Zealand. ward.appeltans@gmail.com
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/1942/14524
DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2012.09.036
ISI #: 000312115300015
ISSN: 0960-9822
Category: A1
Type: Journal Contribution
Validation: ecoom, 2014
Appears in Collections: Research publications

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