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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1942/13988

Title: Personal exposure to Black Carbon in transport microenvironments
Authors: DONS, Evi
Van Poppel, Martine
Theunis, Jan
WETS, Geert
Issue Date: 2012
Citation: ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT, 55, p. 392-398
Abstract: We evaluated personal exposure of 62 individuals to the air pollutant Black Carbon, using 13 portable aethalometers while keeping detailed records of their time-activity pattern and whereabouts. Concentrations encountered in transport are studied in depth and related to trip motives. The evaluation comprises more than 1500 trips with different transport modes. Measurements were spread over two seasons. Results show that 6% of the time is spent in transport, but it accounts for 21% of personal exposure to Black Carbon and approximately 30% of inhaled dose. Concentrations in transport were 2-5 times higher compared to concentrations encountered at home. Exposure was highest for car drivers, and car and bus passengers. Concentrations of Black Carbon were only half as much when traveling by bike or on foot: when incorporating breathing rates, dose was found to be twice as high for active modes. Lowest 'in transport' concentrations were measured in trains, but nevertheless these concentrations are double the concentrations measured at home. Two thirds of the trips are car trips, and those trips showed a large spread in concentrations. In-car concentrations are higher during peak hours compared to off-peak, and are elevated on weekdays compared to Saturdays and even more so on Sundays. These findings result in significantly higher exposure during car commute trips (motive 'Work'), and lower concentrations for trips with motive 'Social and leisure'. Because of the many factors influencing exposure in transport, travel time is not a good predictor of integrated personal exposure or inhaled dose. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Notes: [Dons, Evi; Panis, Luc Int; Van Poppel, Martine; Theunis, Jan] Flemish Inst Technol Res VITO, B-2400 Mol, Belgium. [Dons, Evi; Panis, Luc Int; Wets, Geert] Hasselt Univ, Transportat Res Inst IMOB, B-3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium. evi.dons@vito.be
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/1942/13988
DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.03.020
ISI #: 000306870400050
ISSN: 1352-2310
Category: A1
Type: Journal Contribution
Validation: ecoom, 2013
Appears in Collections: Research publications

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